All praise and thanks are due to Allāh, Creator of the heavens and the earth, and light and darkness, gatherer of mankind for the final judgment so that the righteous may attain success and the wretched may attain misery. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped save Allāh, the One who has no partner, a testification given such that the person who says it may attain bliss on the Day of Judgment. Peace and blessings be upon the master of the Messengers and Prophets, Muhammad, his family and his noble Companions.
This is a brief treatise dealing with various aspects of the life of our master and Prophet, the Chosen One, Muhammad ﷺ, no Muslim should be unaware of these. May Allāh cause us to benefit through it and all those who read it and hear it.
He ﷺ is: Abū’l-Qāsim Muhammad ibn `Abdullāh ibn `Abdu’l-Muţţalib ibn Hāshim ibn `Abd-Manāf ibn Qu’ayy ibn Kilāb ibn Murrah ibn Ka`b ibn Lu’ayy ibn Ghālib ibn Fihr ibn Mālik ibn al-Na’r ibn Kinānah ibn Khuzaymah ibn Mudrikah ibn Ilyās ibn Mudar ibn Nizār ibn Ma`add ibn `Adnān ibn Adad ibn al-Muqawwim ibn Nāhūr ibn Tayrah ibn Ya`rub ibn Yashjub ibn Nābit ibn Ismā`īl ibn Ibrāhīm, the Khalīl of al-Rahmān, ibn Tārih – who is Āzir ibn Nāhūr ibn Sārū` ibn Rā`ū ibn Fālikh ibn `Aybar ibn Shālikh ibn Arfakhshad ibn Sām ibn Nūh ibn Lamk ibn Mutūshalk ibn Akhnūkh – who is Idrīs, the Prophet as some say, he was the first of the children of Ādam to be granted prophethood and the first to write with the pen – ibn Yarid ibn Mihlīl ibn Qaynan ibn Yānish ibn Shayth ibn Ādam, upon him be peace.
This was the lineage mentioned by Muhammad ibn Ishāq ibn Yasār al-Madanī. The lineage up to the point of `Adnān is agreed upon as being authentic, after this there is a difference of opinion. The Quraysh are the children of Fihr ibn Mālik and it is postulated, Nadr ibn Kinānah.
His mother was `Āminah bint Wahb ibn `Abd-Manāf ibn Zuhrah ibn Kilāb ibn Murrah ibn Ka`b ibn Lu’ayy ibn Ghālib.
The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ was born in Mecca in the Year of the Elephant on Monday, 2nd Rabī` al-Awwal. Some people said he was born thirty years after the Year of the Elephant and others said forty years but the correct opinion is that he was born in the Year of the Elephant.
The death of his father, mother and grandfather
His father, `Abdullāh ibn `Abdu’l-Muţţalib, died when he was twenty eight-months old; some said he was seven months old and others said he died in Dār al-Nābighah while his mother was yet pregnant with him. It is also said that he died at al-Abwā’ which falls between Mecca and Madīnah.
Abū `Abdullāh al-Zubair ibn Bakkār al-Zubayri said, ‘He died in Madīnah when the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ was two months old.’
His mother died when he was four years old and his grandfather, `Abdu’l-Muţţalib, when he was eight. It is also said that his mother died when he was six years old.
He ﷺ was fostered, along with Hamzah ibn `Abdu’l-Muţţalib and Abū Salamah `Abdullāh ibn `Abdu’l-Asad al-Makhzūmī, by Thuwaybah the slave of Abu Jahl, with the milk that came on account of her son, Masrūh.
He ﷺ was then fostered by Halīmah bint Abū Dhu’ayb al-Sa`diyyah.
Jubayr ibn Muţ`im reports that the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ said,
| “I am Muhammad and I am Ahmad. I am al-Māhī (the Effacer) through whom Allāh will efface disbelief and I am al-Hashir (the Gatherer) at whose feet man will be resurrected. I am al-`Āqib (the Last) after whom there will be no Prophet.”
The hadīth is ‘ahīh and agreed upon.
Abū Mūsā `Abdullāh ibn Qays reported, ‘The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ mentioned his names to us, some of which we have remembered. He said,
| “I am Muhammad and I am Ahmad. I am al-Muqaffī (the Tracker), Nabī al-Tawbah (the Prophet of Repentance) and Nabī al-Rahmah (the Prophet of Mercy)” and in another version, “Nabī al-Malhamah (the Prophet of Slaughter).”
It is ‘ahīh and recorded by Muslim.
Jābir ibn `Abdullāh reports that the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ said,
| “I am Muhammad and I am Ahmad. I am al-Hāshir and I am al-Māhī through whom Allāh would efface disbelief. On the Day of Rising the banner of praise will be with me and I will be the Imām of the Messengers and the one who will intercede for them.”
In His Book, Allāh, Mighty and Magnificent, called him ‘a giver of glad tidings’, ‘a warner’, ‘gentle’, ‘merciful’ and ‘a mercy to the worlds’.
His upbringing in Mecca, his journey to Syria and his marriage to Khadījah
The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ grew up an orphan in Mecca under the care of his grandfather, `Abdu’l-Muţţalib, and after his death, his uncle Abū Tālib. Allāh, Most High, purified him from the filth of Jāhiliyyah, from every lowly quality and graced him with every lofty trait to the extent that he was known by his people as al-Amīn because of his sincerity, trustworthiness, truthfulness and purity.
At the age of twelve he left on a journey with his uncle, Abū Ţālib, to Syria. When they arrived at Bu’rah he came to the attention of the monk, Bahīrah, who recognised him from his features and characteristics. He came, took him by his hand and said, ‘This is the master of the worlds, the Messenger of the Lord of the worlds, he has been sent as a mercy to the worlds.’ When he was asked how he knew this, he replied, ‘When you came down from the mountain path, there was not a single rock or tree except that it fell prostrate and they only prostrate to a Prophet; we find him mentioned in our books.’ He then asked Abū Ţālib to take him back for fear of the Jews.
He also left a second time for the market of Buşrah, this time with Maysirah, the slave of Khadījah (RA), in order to trade on her behalf before their marriage. At the age of twenty-five he married Khadījah (AS).
At the age of forty, Allāh honoured him with His grace and commissioned him to convey His message. Jibrīl (AS) came to him while he was in the cave of Hirā, a mountain in Mecca. He then remained in Mecca for thirteen years, some say fifteen years and others ten, but the correct opinion is the first. While in Mecca, he would pray towards Bayt al-Maqdis but would never set his back towards the Ka`bah, always praying with it in front of him. When in Madīnah he also prayed towards Bayt al-Maqdis for the first seventeen or sixteen months.
After the stay in Mecca, he migrated to Madīnah, being accompanied by Abū Bakr al-Şiddīq (RA) and his freed-slave, `Āmir ibn Fuhayrah. Their guide was `Abdullāh ibn al-Urayqiţ al-Laythī, a disbeliever and it is not known that he accepted Islām. He remained in Madīnah for ten years.
His ﷺ Death
He died at the age of sixty-three, some said sixty-five and others sixty but the first opinion is correct. He passed away on Monday, 12th Rabī` al-Awwal, when the heat of the morning sun became severe. It is also said that he passed away on the 2nd of Rabī` al-Awwal or the beginning of Rabī` al-Awwal. He was buried on Wednesday night and it is also said Tuesday night. The duration of his final illness was twelve days and it is also said fourteen days.
He was washed by `Alī ibn Abū Ţālib; his uncle, al-`Abbās; al-Fadl ibn al-`Abbās; Qutham ibn al-`Abbās; Usāmah ibn Zayd and Shuqrān. Aws ibn Khawlā al-Anşārī was also present. He was wrapped in three white sheets from Sahūl, Yemen, none of which was a shirt or turban. The people then entered in groups, [praying the funeral prayer], with none of them leading. A cloth of red velvet was placed in the grave under him ﷺ and al-`Abbās, `Alī, al-Fadl, Qutham and Shuqrān entered the grave and constructed nine sun dried bricks over him. He was buried in the place in which he died, around the area of his bed, in his house, the house of `Ā’ishah, then Abū Bakr (RA), then `Umar (RA) were buried alongside him.
He ﷺ had three sons:
1. al-Qāsim, after whom he was given his honorific (kunyā). He was born to him while in Mecca, before his Prophethood and died at the age of two. Qatādah said that he lived until the age he was able to walk.
2. `Abdullāh, who was also called Ţayyib and Ţāhir because he was born in the age of Islām. It is also said that Ţayyib and Ţāhir were two of his other sons but the correct opinion is the first.
3. Ibrāhīm, he was born in Madīnah and died there in the tenth year of Hijrah at the age of seventeen or eighteen months.
It is also said that he had a son who he called `Abdu’l-`Uzzah, but Allāh purified him and protected him from such things.
His daughters were:
1. Zaynab, he married her to Abu al-`Āş ibn al-Rabī` ibn `Abdu’l-`Uzzah ibn `Abd Shams, the son of her maternal aunt. His mother was Hālah bint Khuwaylid. Born to her was `Alī who died in infancy and Umāmah who the Prophet ﷺ would carry in prayer. `Ali married her after the death of Fāţimah.
2. Fāţimah, he married her to `Alī ibn Abū Ţālib. Born to her were al-Hasan and al-Husayn and al-Muhsin who died in infancy.
3. Ruqayyah, she married `Uthmān ibn `Affān and later passed away after which he married his ﷺ other daughter,
4. Umm Kulthūm, who also later passed away. To Ruqayyah was born `Abdullāh after whom `Uthmān took his honorific.
There is no difference that he had four daughters, and he had three sons according to the correct opinion.
al-Qāsim was the first to be born to him followed by Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Fāţimah, Umm Kulthūm. Then in the time of Islām, `Abdullāh and Ibrāhīm in Madīnah. All of his children were from Khadījah save Ibrāhīm who was from Mary the Copt. All of his children died before him save Fāţimah who lived six months after him.
His Hajj and `Umrah
Hammām ibn Yahyā reports on the authority of Qatādah who said, ‘I asked Anas how many times the Prophet ﷺ performed Hajj and `Umrah and he said, “He performed Hajj once and `Umrah four times: the first time when the polytheists prevented him from arriving at the House; the second in the following year when the treaty was signed, the third from al-Ji`rānah wherein he apportioned the booty of Hunayn in Dhū’l-Qa`dah, and the fourth was the `Umrah he performed with his Hajj.”’ The hadith is agreed upon.
These were all performed after his arrival in Madīnah, as for the period while he was in Mecca, nothing is preserved concerning this. His Hajj was the farewell Hajj in which he said, “It is well possible that you will not see me after this year of mine.”
He ﷺ himself participated in twenty-five military expeditions according to the famous view and this is the view stated by Muhammad ibn Ishāq, Abū Ma`shar, Mūsā ibn `Uqbah and others. It is also said that he participated in twenty-seven such expeditions. The number of raiding parties were around fifty.
He ﷺ actually fought in nine battles: Badr, Uhud, Khandaq, Banī Quraydhah, Muşţaliq, Khaybar, Fath Mecca, Hunayn and Ţā’if. It is also said that he fought at Wādī al-Qurā, al-Ghābah and Banū al-Nadīr.
His scribes and envoys
His ﷺ scribes were: Abū Bakr al-Şiddīq; `Umar ibn al-Khaţţāb; `Uthmān ibn `Affān; `Alī ibn Abū Ţālib; `Āmir ibn Fuhayrah; `Abdullāh ibn al-Arqam al-Zuhrī; Ubayy ibn Ka`b; Thābit ibn Qays ibn Shimās; Khālid ibn Sa`īd ibn al-`Āş; Handhalah ibn al-Rabī` al-Asadī; Zayd ibn Thābit; Mu`āwiyah ibn Abū Sufyān; and Shurhabīl ibn Hasanah.
The most prolific scribes were Zayd ibn Thābit and Mu`āwiyah.
He ﷺ sent,
1. `Amr ibn Umayyah al-Damrī to al-Najāshī, his name is Aşhamah which means ‘a gift’. He took the letter of the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ, placed it between his eyes, descended from his throne and sat on the floor. He then accepted Islām in the presence of Ja`far ibn Abū Ţālib and his Islām was good. It is authentically reported that the Prophet ﷺ prayed his funeral prayer on the day that he died and it is reported that light was always seen on his grave.
2. Dihyah ibn Khalīfah al-Kalbī to Heraclius, the leader of Rome. He asked questions about the Prophet ﷺ and became convinced of the truth of Islām. He wanted to accept Islām but his people did not agree to this and hence he remained non-Muslim for fear of losing his position.
3. `Abdullāh ibn Hudhāfah al-Sahmī to Chosroes, the King of Persia. He ripped the Prophet’s letter apart and the Prophet ﷺ said, “May Allāh rip his kingdom apart” and this happened.
4. Hāţib ibn Abū Balta`ah al-Lakhmī to al-Muqawqis, the Governor of Egypt and Alexandria. He said some good words and almost accepted Islām and gifted the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ with Māria, the Copt and her sister Sīrīn. The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ in turn gifted Hassān ibn Thābit with Sīrīn and she bore him his son, `Abdu’l-Rahmān ibn Hassān.
5. `Amr ibn al-`Āş to the two kings of `Umān, Ja`far ibn al-Julandī and `Abd ibn al-Julandī, and they accepted Islām, he remained with them until the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ passed away.
6. Salīţ ībn `Amr al-`Āmirī to Hawdhah ibn `Ali al-Hanafī in al-Yamāmah. He honoured him and gave him residence and wrote to the Prophet ﷺ, ‘How excellent and wonderful is your call, I am the spokesperson of my people and their poet, grant me a share of rule in this.’ The Prophet ﷺ refused and he did not accept Islām. He died during the time of the Conquest of Mecca.
7. Shujā` ibn Wahb al-Asadī to al-Hārithah ibn Abū Shamir al-Ghassānī, the King of al-Balqā’, Syria. He read the letter and tossed it aside and resolved to go to the Prophet ﷺ but was prevented from doing so by Chosroes.
8. al-Muhājir ibn Abū Umayyah al-Makhzūmī to al-Hārith al-Humairī, one of the leaders of Yemen.
9. al-`Alā’ ibn al-Hadramī to al-Mundhir ibn Sāwī al-`Abadī, the King of Bahrain, who believed and accepted Islām.
10. Abū Mūsā al-Ash`arī and Mu`ādh ibn Jabal al-Anşārī to Yemen, calling its people to Islām. The generality of its inhabitants accepted Islām voluntarily, leader and subject.
His Uncles and Aunts
He ﷺ had eleven uncles:
1. al-Hārith who was the oldest son of `Abdu’l-Muţţalib and it was after him that he took his honorific. A large group of his children and grandchildren were Companions.
2. Qutham, he passed away in infancy.
3. Zubayr, one of the nobles of the Quraysh. His son was `Abdullāh ibn Zubayr who fought in the battle of Hunayn alongside the Prophet ﷺ. He was martyred at Ajnādayn and it is reported that he was found at the side of seven people that he had killed, who had fought him.
4. Hamzah, the Lion of Allāh and His Messenger and his foster brother. He accepted Islām early on, migrated to Madīnah and witnessed the Battle of Badr. He was martyred at the Battle of Uhud and had but one daughter.
5. Abū al-Fadl al-`Abbās, he accepted Islām and migrated to Madīnah. He was older than the Prophet ﷺ by three years and of his sons three were Companions: al-Fadl, `Abdullāh and Qutham. He died in Madīnah during the rule of `Uthmān. Only al-`Abbās and Hamzah of his ﷺ uncles accepted Islām
6. Abū Ţālib, his name was `Abd-Manāf. He was born Ţālib who died as a disbeliever; `Aqīl, Ja`far, `Alī and Umm Hānī’ all of who were Companions. Umm Hāni’s name is Fākhitah and it is also said Hind. Jumānah is also mentioned as one of his children.
7. Abū Lahb, his name is `Abdu’l-`Uzzah. He was given this agnomen by his father because of his handsome features. Of his children were `Utbah and Mu`tab who fought with the Prophet ﷺ at Hunayn and Durrah who was also a Companion. He also had Utaybah who was killed by a lion at Zarqā’, Syria, as a disbeliever as supplicated by the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ.
9. Hajl, whose name was al-Mughīrah.
11. Ghaydāq, he was given this name because he was the most generous of the Quraysh and the most prolific in feeding the poor.
He had six aunts:
1. Şafiyyah. She accepted Islām and undertook the Hijrah. She was the mother of Zubair ibn al-`Awām and died in Madīnah during the rule of `Umar ibn al-Khaţţāb.
2. `Ātikah. It is said that she accepted Islām and she is the one who had the dream about the Battle of Badr. She gave birth to `Abdullāh who was a Companion and Zuhayr and Quraybah.
3. Arwā, she was born Ţulayb ibn `Umayr who was from the first Muhājirūn. He was present at Badr and was martyred at Ajnādayn and he had no children.
4. Umaymah, she was born `Abdullāh who was martyred at Uhud; Abū Ahmad who was blind and a poet; Zaynab the wife of the Prophet ﷺ; Habībah and Hamnah – all of whom were Companions; and `Ubaydullāh who accepted Islām and then became Christian in Abysinnia, dying as a disbeliever.
5. Barrah, who was born Abū Salamah `Abdullāh, he was the husband of Umm Salamah before the Prophet ﷺ.
6. Umm Hakīm who was known as al-Baydā’ (the White Woman). She was born Arwā ibn Kurayz who was the mother of `Uthmān ibn `Affān (RA).
The first wife of the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ was Khadījah bint Khuwaylid ibn Asad ibn `Abdu’l-`Uzzah ibn Quşayy ibn Kilāb. He married her at the age of twenty-five and she remained with him to see the day that Allāh, Mighty and Magnificent, commissioned him. She was a truthful and sincere partner and died three years before the Hijrah according to the most correct opinion. It is also said that she died five or four years before the Hijrah.
Then, after her death and before the Hijrah, he married Sawdah bint Zama`ah ibn Qays ibn `Abd-Shams ibn `Abd-Wadd ibn Nadr ibn Mālik ibn Hisl ibn `Āmir ibn Lu’ayy. Before him she was married to Sakrān ibn `Amr, the brother of Suhayl ibn `Amr. She grew old while married to him and gifted her day to `Ā’ishah.
He ﷺ married `Ā’ishah bint Abū Bakr al-Şiddīq two years before the Hijrah, it is also said three years. She was at that time six years old according to the most correct opinion and it is also said that she was seven. The marriage was consummated after the Hijrah when she was nine years old. The Prophet ﷺ passed away when she was eighteen years old and she passed away at Madīnah and was buried at al-Baqī` according to her wishes in the year 58H or 57H; the first is more correct. Her funeral prayer was led by Abū Hurayrah. She was the only virgin that the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ married; her honorific was Umm `Abdullāh. It is reported that she had a miscarriage but this is not authentic.
He ﷺ married Hafşah bint `Umar ibn al-Khaţţāb (RA). Before him she was married to Khunays ibn Hudhāfah, one of the Companions who died at Madīnah after having been present at Badr. It is reported that the Prophet ﷺ divorced her and that Jibrīl (AS) came to him saying, “Allāh orders you to take her back, for she is devout, given to fasting and your wife in Paradise.” `Uqbah ibn `Āmir al-Juhanī reports that, ‘The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ divorced Hafşah and this reached `Umar. He threw dust on his head and said, “What would Allāh have to do with `Umar and his daughter after this?” The next day Jibrīl came to the Prophet and said, “Allāh, Mighty and Magnificent, orders you to take back Hafşah,” out of mercy for `Umar.’ She passed away in the year 27H or 28H, the year of conquest of Afrīqiyyah.
He ﷺ married Umm Habibāh bint Abū Sufyān, her name is Ramlah bint Şakhr ibn Harb ibn Umayyah ibn `Abd-Shams ibn `Abd-Manāf. She migrated with her husband, `Ubaydullāh ibn Jahsh, to Abyssinia where her husband became a Christian and she remained firm upon Islām. The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ married her while she was still in Abyssinia and Najāshī gave her a dowry of four hundred dīnārs on his behalf. The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ sent `Amr ibn Umayyah to Abyssinia to propose to her on his behalf and `Uthmān ibn `Affān acted as her legal guardian (walī). She died in the year 44H.
He ﷺ married Umm Salamah, her name is Hind bint Abū Umayyah ibn al-Mughīrah ibn `Abdullāh ibn `Umar ibn Makhzūm ibn Yaqadhah ibn Murrah ibn Ka`b ibn Lu’ayy ibn Ghālib. She was previously married to Abū Salamah `Abdullāh ibn `Abdu’l-Asad ibn Hilāl ibn `Abdullāh ibn `Umar ibn Makhzūm. She passed away in the year 62H and was buried at al-Baqī` being the last of his wives to pass away; it is also said that Maymūnah was the last.
He ﷺ married Zaynab bint Jahsh ibn Ri’āb ibn Ya`mar ibn Şabirah ibn Murrah ibn Kabīr ibn Ghanam. She was the daughter of his paternal aunt, Umaymah ibn `Abdu’l-Muţţalib. She was previously married to his freed slave, Zayd ibn al-Hārithah who divorced her. Allāh then married her to him, it is authentically reported that she would say to his other wives, ‘Your fathers married you but Allāh, from above the seven heavens, married me.’ She died in the year 20H and was buried at al-Baqī`.
He ﷺ married Zaynab bint Khuzaymah ibn al-Hārith ibn `Abdullāh ibn `Amr ibn `Abd-Manāf ibn Hilāl. She was nicknamed Umm al-Masākīn because of her frequently feeding of orphans. She was previously married to `Abdullāh ibn Jahsh according to the most correct opinion and it is also said `Abdu’l-Ţufayl ibn al-Hārith. He married her in the third year of Hijrah and she remained with him for only two or three months before passing away.
He ﷺ married Juwayriyyah bint al-Hārith ibn Abū Dirār ibn Habīb ibn Ā’idh ibn Mālik ibn al-Muşţaliq ibn al-Khuzā`iyyah. She was captured in the battle of Banū al-Muşţaliq and was apportioned to Thābit ibn Qays ibn Shimās, he set a price for her freedom and this was met by the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ. He married her in the sixth year of Hijrah and she died in the year 56H.
He ﷺ married Şafiyyah bint Huyayy ibn Akhţab ibn Abū Yahyā ibn Ka`b ibn al-Khazraj al-Nadariyyah, from the descendants of Hārūn ibn `Imrān, the brother of Mūsā (AS). She was captured at Khaybar in the seventh year of the Hijrah. She was previously married to Kinānah ibn Abū al-Haqīq who was killed by the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ during the battle. He ﷺ set her free and appointed her freedom to be her dowry. She died in the year 30H and it is also said 50H.
He ﷺ married Maymūnah bint al-Hārith ibn Hazn ibn Bujayr ibn al-Harim ibn Ruwaybah, the maternal aunt of Khālid ibn al-Walīd and Abdullāh ibn `Abbās. He ﷺ married her at Sarif, consummated the marriage there and she also died there. Sarif is a place falling nine miles from Mecca. She was the last woman that he ﷺ married and she died in the year 63H.
Anas ibn Mālik ibn an-Nadr al-Anşārī; Hind and Asmā’, the daughters of Hārithāh al-Aslamī; Rabī`ah ibn Ka`b al-Aslamī; `Abdullāh ibn Mas`ūd who used to look after his footwear, when he stood he would put them on for him. When he sat, he would remove them and place them under his arms until he stood once again; `Uqbah ibn `Āmir al-Juhanī who was in charge of his mule and would lead it in journeys; Bilāl ibn Rabāh, the one who called the adhān; Sa`d the freed slave of Abū Bakr al-Şiddīq; Dhū Mikhmar, the son of Najāshī’s brother, some said his sister, it is also said he was called Dhū Mikhbar; Bukayr ibn Shaddākh al-Laythī, it is also postulated that his name was Bakr; and Abū Dharr al-Ghifārī.
His Freed Slaves
Zayd ibn Hārithah ibn Sharāhīl al-Kalbī; his son, Usāmah ibn Zayd who was known as ‘the intimate friend, son of the intimate friend’; Thawbān ibn Bujdud; Abū Kabashah of mixed Arab descent, his name was Sulaym and he was present at Badr; Anasah, he was of mixed lineage and from al-Sarrāt; Şalih Shuqrān; Rabāh al-Aswad; Yasār the Nabatean; Abū Rāfi` whose name was Aslam, it is also said his name was Ibrāhīm, he was a servant al-`Abbās who gifted him to the Prophet ﷺ who set him free; Abū Muwayhibah who was of mixed Arab descent from Banū Muzaynah; Fadālah; Rāfi` who belonged to Sa`īd ibn al-`Āş, his children inherited him from him and some set him free while others did not, he came to the Prophet ﷺ to ask for help, he was then gifted to him ﷺ and set free. He would say, ‘I am the freed slave of the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ; Mid`am al-Aswad, he was gifted him by Rifā`ah ibn Zayd al-Judhāmī, he was of mixed Arab descent from Hismā and was killed at Wādī al-Qurā; Kirkirah, who used to carry the belongings of the Prophet ﷺ while travelling; Zayd, the grandfather of Hilāl ibn Yasār ibn Zayd; `Ubayd; Ţahmān or Kaysān or Mihrān or Dhakwān or Marwān; Ma’būr, the Copt, who was gifted him by al-Muqawqis; Wāqid; Abū Wāqid ; Hishām; Abū éumayrah; Hunayn; Abū `Asīb whose name was Ahmar; Abū `Ubayd; and Safīnah who was the servant of Salamah, the wife of the Prophet ﷺ, and she set him free, setting a condition that he must serve the Prophet ﷺ. He would say, ‘Even if she had not stipulated this, I would never have left the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ!’
These are the famous ones and it is said that they reach forty in number.
Some of the females were: Salmā Umm Rāfi`, Umm Ayman, Barakah who was Usāmah ibn Zayd’s mother and he ﷺ inherited her from his father, Maymūnah bint Sa`d, Khadirah and Radwah
The first horse he owned was Sakab. He bought it off a Bedouin who called it Daris but he changed its name. It was unique, having a white streak and white hooves and it was the first horse that he undertook a military expedition on. He also had Sabhah which is the horse he raced on and won. He also had Murtajiz which was the one he bought from the bedouin Arab of the tribe of Banī Murrah. Khuzaymah ibn Thābit testified on his behalf [on timely payment].
Sahl ibn Sa`d al-Sā`idī said, ‘The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ had three horses: Lizāz, Dharib and Luhayf.’
Lizāz was gifted him by Muqawqis, Luhayf was gifted him by Rabī`ah ibn Abū al-Barā’a, and Dharib was gifted him by Farwah ibn `Amr al-Judhāmī.
He also had a horse called Ward which was gifted him by Tamīm al-Dārī which he then gave to `Umar and later found it being sold.
He ﷺ had a mule called Duldul upon which he used to ride on his journeys. It lived on after his death until it grew old and lost its teeth, barley would then be ground for it to eat. It died at Yanbu`.
He ﷺ had a donkey called `Ufayr which died during the Farewell Pilgrimage.
He had twenty milking camels and also one he called Burdah which was gifted him by Dahhāk ibn Sufyān which would give the milk of two camels. He also had Mihrah which was sent to him by Sa`d ibn `Ubādah and Shaqrā’. He also had `Adbā’ which was bought for him by Abū Bakr from Banū Harīsh. This is the camel he rode when performing the Hijrah; this camel was also called Qaşwā’ and Jad`ā’; it lost a race once and this bore down heavily on the Muslims.
He had seven sheep used for wool and milk: `Ujrah, Zamzam, Suqyā, Barakah, Warasah, Aţlāl and Aţrāf. He also had one hundred other sheep.
He ﷺ had three spears which he acquired from the weapons of Banū Qaynaqā`. He had three bows, one called Rawhā’, the second made from wood from the Shawqaţ tree and the third called Şafrā’. He had a shield on which was a picture of a ram’s head which he intensely disliked, one morning he awoke to find that Allāh, Mighty and Magnificent, had caused the picture to disappear. He had a sword called Dhu’l-Fiqār which he appropriated from the war booty on the Day of Badr and it was the sword that he saw in his dream on the Day of Uhud, it used to belong to Munabbih ibn al-Hajjāj al-Sahmī. From the weapons of Banū Qaynaqā` he acquired three other swords; a sword from Qula`, a second called Battār and a third called Hatf. He later acquired two more swords called Mikhdam and Rusūb. Anas ibn Mālik said, ‘The tip of the sheath of the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ was made of silver, the pommel of his sword was also made of silver.’ He had two suits of armour which he acquired from the weapons of Banū Qaynaqā`, one which was called Sa`diyyah and the other, Fidda. It is reported that Muhammad ibn Salamah said, ‘On the Day of Uhud, I saw the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ wearing two suits of armour, Fidda and Dhātu’l-Fudūl, and I also saw him wearing two on the Day of Khaybar, Dhātu’l-Fudūl and Sa`diyyah.’
His ﷺ physical features
Anas ibn Mālik (RA) who said,
|‘When Abū Bakr al-Şiddīq (RA) would see the Prophet ﷺ coming he would say,
The Trustworthy One, the Chosen One, calling to good
It is reported that Abū Hurayrah (RA) said,
|‘`Umar ibn al-Khaţţāb (RA) would quote the line of poetry by Zuhayr ibn Abū Salmā concerning Harim ibn Sinān,
Were you to be anything other than a human
then `Umar and his companions would say,
|“This is how the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ was and nobody else was like that.”’
`Alī ibn Abū Ţālib (RA) said,
|‘He was white skinned, having a reddish tinge. His eyes were large with jet black pupils and his hair straight. His hair reached the lobes of his ears, he had a thick beard and had a fine line of hair extending from his chest to navel, apart from that, his chest and stomach were bare. His neck resembled that of a statues made of glittering silver. He had heavy and thick hands and soles. When he walked it was if he was descending a slope. When he turned [to address someone], he turned his entire body. His sweat resembled pearl drops and its scent was sweeter than that of the most fragrant musk. He was not tall, neither short, he was not uncouth nor abusive. I have not seen anyone, before him or after him, who was comparable to him.’
In another wording,
|‘Between his two shoulders was the Seal of Prophethood, he was the Seal of the Prophets, he had the most giving of hearts, he was the most truthful of them, the best of them in temperament and the most sociable of them. Whoever unexpectedly saw him would stand in awe of him and whoever accompanied him and got to know him would love him. Those who described him would say, “I have never seen anyone, before him or after him, who was comparable to him.”’
Barā’a ibn `Āzib said,
|‘The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ was of medium stature with broad shoulders. His hair was thick, reaching his earlobes and he wore a red hulla. I have never seen anyone more beautiful than him.’
Umm Ma`bad al-Khuzā`iyyah said,
|‘I saw a man, clearly handsome with a slightly round face, excellent morals and manners, he was not burdened with a large stomach nor did he have a small head. His eyes were jet black and he had long eyelashes. His voice had an element of hoarseness to it and he had a long neck. He had a thick beard, curved eyebrows that met in the middle. When he was quiet, he would be sober and thoughtful, when he spoke he raised his head and radiance overcame him. From afar he was the most beautiful of people, and close up he was the most handsome. His manner of speech was sweet and concise, not long winded nor so short as to be misunderstood. His words flowed like well organised beads on a string. One would not be able to keep his gaze fixed on him and his close friends would constantly surround him. When he spoke they would cease speaking and listen, when he commanded they rushed to implement his order. He was not sullen or given to scowling and neither was he ignorant or doltish.’
Anas ibn Mālik (RA) said,
|‘The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ was neither very tall such that he would be clearly noticed, nor was he short. He had a brownish complexion, not extremely white and neither very brown. His hair was neither very curly nor completely straight.’
Hind ibn Abū Hālah said,
|‘The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ was imposing, dignified and one who was greatly honoured and respected. His face shone with a resplendence like that of the moon when it was full. He was somewhat taller than a person of medium stature but shorter than a tall person. His head was large with slightly curly hair and if the hair on his forehead parted of its own accord, he would keep it parted, otherwise his hair, when at its longest, would reach the lobes of his ears. He had radiant a complexion with a wide brow, thick curved eyebrows except in the place where they met. Between them was a vein that would throb when angry. He had a long, aqualine nose which shone with a light that would seem to elevate it, whoever did not carefully look at it would think it turned up. He had a thick beard, jet black eyes and was sociable and good natured. He had a wide mouth, evenly spaced teeth and had a fine line of hair extending from his chest to navel. His neck resembled that of a statue’s made of glittering silver and he was of a goodly build, finely balanced. His chest and stomach were level and he had a wide chest with broad shoulders. His joints were large and he had a line of hair extending from his upper chest to his navel, apart from that, his chest and stomach were bare. His forearms and shoulders had hair on them. His wrists were thick with wide palms and he had heavy and thick hands and soles. His fingers were long, he had high insteps and his feet were smooth and well proportioned because of which water would swiftly flow off them and quickly vanish. When he walked he walked briskly with strength of purpose but placed his feet on the ground softly. He took large steps and when he walked it was if he was descending a slope. When he turned [to address someone], he turned his entire body. He would constantly lower his gaze looking more to the ground then he would to the sky. Most of the time he would merely glance at something, he would have his Companions walk in front of him and would hurry to greet whoever he met with the salām.’
The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ was the most courageous of people, `Alī ibn Abū Ţālib said, ‘When the fighting became severe and the two armies met, the people would take recourse behind the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ.’ He was the most giving of people, he was never asked of anything to which he answered in the negative. He was the most forbearing of people, he had a sense of modesty greater than that of a virgins secluded in her private room, and his gaze would never linger on the face of anyone. He would never take revenge for personal motives or become enraged for personal motives; he only became angry if the laws of Allāh were transgressed and it was for that, for the sake of Allāh, that he took revenge.
In his eyes, the near and far, the strong and weak were all the same. He would not criticise food; if he desired it, he would eat it, if not, he left it. He would not eat in a reclined posture and neither on a raise dais. He would eat what was readily available, if he found dates, he would eat them, if he found bread, he would eat that, if he found milk, he would suffice with that. He would eat melon with fresh dates and liked sweets and honey. Abū Hurayrah (RA) said,
|‘The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ left the world without ever having eaten his fill of barley bread.’ He also said, ‘A month or two would go by without a fire being lit in a house of the houses of Muhammad, his family would suffice with dates and water.’
He would partake of gifts but never touch what was given in charity; he would repay gift with gift. He would never seek after the best or most expensive clothing and food; rather he would eat what he found and wear whatever he found. He would fix his own sandals and sow his own clothes. He would fulfil the needs and requirements of his family and visit the sick. He was the most humble of people and would respond to the call of the rich, the poor, the noble and the down-trodden alike. He loved orphans and would attend their funeral prayers and visit them when they were ill. He would not look down upon the poor nor be awed by the wealth of kings.
He would ride a horse, camel, donkey and mule; sometimes having somebody else sitting with him, behind him. He would not let anybody walk behind him saying, “Leave my rear free for the Angels.” He would wear woollen garments and repaired shoes; his favourite garment was the Hibrah, a red and white Yemeni cloak. His ring was made of silver which he wore on his right little finger, and sometimes the left.
Sometime he would tie a rock to his stomach due to intense hunger, Allāh, Most High, had given him the keys to the treasures of the whole world, but he refused to accept them, preferring the Hereafter instead.
He would frequently perform the dhikr of Allāh, refrain from idle speech, lengthen his prayer and shorten the khuţbah. Frequently would he smile and display a joyful face despite his contemplation and sombreness.
He liked perfumed scents and disliked any distasteful scents. If he saw permissible forms of playing, he would allow it to continue without objection. He would joke but never say ought but the truth. He would accept the excuses of those who presented excuses to him. He had male and female servants but would never eat or wear better than them.
His time would be spent in doing deeds for the sake of Allāh or fulfilling the necessities of life and his family. He shepherded cattle and said, “There has never been a Prophet except that he was a shepherd.”
`Ā’ishah was asked about his manners to which she replied, ‘His manners were the Qur’ān.’ He would become angry for the sake of Allāh and pleased for His sake. It is authentically reported from Anas (RA) that he said,
I have not touched silk brocade or silk that was finer to touch than the hands of the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ. I have not smelt anything that was more pleasant than the smell of the Messenger of Allāh. I served the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ for ten years and he never once said to me, “uff”, neither did he ever say to something that I did, “why did you do it?” or to something that I did not do, “have you not done such-and-such?”
Allāh, Most High, combined in him perfect morals and manners, the best of deeds and granted him the knowledge of the first and last people , and that which would ensure success and victory. All this while being illiterate, neither reading nor writing; he had no human teacher; he grew up in a land of ignorance, a desert land. Allāh granted him what He had not granted to any other of creation and chose him above all others. Perpetual peace and blessings be upon him until the Day of Rising!
His ﷺ Miracles
The greatest of them was the Qur’ān, the manifest and clear miracle and brilliant proof; falsehood cannot approach it from before it or behind it. It is a revelation from One who is All-Wise and Praiseworthy. It incapacitated the most eloquent of people to produce ten chapters, or even a single chapter, or even a single verse that would be comparable to it. The polytheists were forced to acknowledge its miracle and the deniers had no course but to accept its truth.
The polytheists asked the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ to show them a sign and he showed them the splitting of the moon. It split in two halves and is referred to in His, Most High, saying,
|“The Hour draws nigh and the moon is split” [al-Qamr (54): 1]
He ﷺ said,
| “Allāh drew the ends of the earth together for me and I saw its east and west. My nations shall reach all that was drawn together for me.”
Allāh caused his statement to come true for his nations spread east and west but did not spread north and south.
He ﷺ would deliver his sermons while leaning on a palm tree, when he took to the pulpit (minbar), the tree was heard giving a sound of mourning and kept doing so until he came and hugged it.
Water gushed forth from between his fingers on a number of occasions. Stones glorified Allāh while in his hand, and then he placed them in the hand of Abū Bakr, then `Umar, then `Uthmān, the stones all the while glorifying Him. Food was heard glorifying Allah while in his presence, while being eaten. The tree and the stone that greeted him with the salām. The poisoned leg [of roasted sheep] speaking to him, all those who partook of it died immediately whereas he lived on for a further four years. A wolf bore testimony to his prophethood.
On one journey he passed by a camel, when the camel saw him, it made a rumbling sound and bent its neck down, he ﷺ said, “It complained to me of its heavy workload and little food.” He once entered a washroom in which was a camel, when it saw him it let out a sound of mourning and tears filled its eyes, he ﷺ said to its owner, “It has complained to me that you leave it hungry and make it work continuously.” He entered another washroom in which were two restless stallion camels whose master was unable to control them. When one of them saw him ﷺ it came to him and knelt down, he patted its nuzzle and gave it to its owner, he did the same with the second.
On one journey, he was sleeping and a tree walked towards him until it stood by him. When he awoke, this was mentioned to him and he said, “That was a tree that sought permission from its Lord to greet the Messenger of Allāh with salām and He granted it permission.” He ordered two trees to come together and they did, then he ordered them to part and they did. A bedouin once asked him to show him a sign so he ordered a tree to walk towards him, when it had come, he ordered it to return and it did.
He wanted to slaughter six fat cows, and they all raced each other to him, vying to be the first to be slaughtered. He touched the udder of a barren [and therefore dry] sheep, its udder filled with milk and he and Abū Bakr drank of it. A similar incident also happened in the tents of Umm Ma`bad al-Khuzā`iyyah.
He ﷺ returned the eye of Qatādah ibn al-Nu`mān to its place with his hand after it had slipped out, it ended up being the better of his eyes and it was said that it was not known which of the eyes it had been. He spat lightly into the eyes of `Alī when it had become inflamed and it was cured almost immediately, it never became inflamed again. He ﷺ also supplicated for him when he was in pain; he was immediately cured and never felt that pain again. The leg of `Abdullāh ibn `Atīq was incapacitated and he wiped it and he was cured immediately.
He informed his Companions that Ubayy ibn Khalaf would be killed on the Day of Uhud, he received a minor scratched from which he died. Sa`d ibn Mu`ādh said to his brother, ‘I heard Muhammad saying that he would kill you’ and he was killed on the Day of Badr as a disbeliever. He told them the places where the polytheists would die on the Day of Badr saying, “This is the place of such-and-such a person tomorrow if Allāh wills,” and they all died exactly as he had said.
He informed that a group of his nation would traverse an ocean and Umm Harām would be amongst them and this occurred. He said to `Uthmān that he would be afflicted by a severe trial and he was later killed.
He informed us that Hasan ibn `Alī was a sayyid and that he would reconcile between two large warring parties of the Muslims, and this happened. He informed that Aswad al-`Ansī had been killed, the night he was killed, and by whom while the latter was at-Şana`ā’, Yemen. The same happened concerning the killing of Chosroes.
He said to Thābit ibn Qays ibn Shimās, “You will live being praised and you will die as a martyr” and he lived being praised and was martyred at al-Yamāmah. He said about a person amongst the Muslims fighting alongside him, “he would be from amongst the denizens of the Fire” and later he committed suicide.
He ﷺ supplicated for `Umar ibn al-Khaţţāb and he accepted Islām the very next day. He supplicated that Allāh remove feeling the bitter cold and heat from `Alī ibn Abū Ţālib and never again did he feel cold or hot. He supplicated that Allāh grant ibn `Abbās understanding of the religion and teach him the explanation of the Book, he came to be called the ocean of knowledge because of his vast knowledge. He ﷺ supplicated for Anas that his wealth and sons increase and that he should live a long life and blessed life and it was so. He lived for about one hundred and twenty years, had one hundred and twenty sons, and his garden would yield produce twice every year.
`Utaybah ibn Abū Lahab once harmed him and ripped his shirt so he supplicated Allāh that one of His dogs overcome him. He was killed by a lion at Zarqā’, Syria.
He ﷺ supplicated, while upon the pulpit, for the descent of rain when they asked him to at the time of drought, there was not a single cloud in the sky, then when he had supplicated, the clouds gathered like mountains and it rained until the next Friday. It rained so much that they had to come back and ask him to supplicate and stop the rain, so he supplicated and the rain stopped and they walked out into the glaring sun.
He fed the combatants of Khandaq, one thousand people, with a şā` of barley, or less, and one sheep. They all ate their fill and left, leaving behind them more food than they had started with. He also fed the combatants of Khandaq with a small number of dates that the daughter of Bashīr ibn Sa`d gave to her father and uncle, `Abdullāh ibn Rawāhah. He once ordered `Umar ibn al-Khaţţāb to feed four hundred riders with a small amount of dates, they all ate their fill and the dates had not even decreased in number. He fed eighty people in the house of Abū Ţalhah with a few loaves of barley bread. He fed an army of people from the food sack of Abū Hurayrah, he then gave the sack and what it contained back to Abū Hurayrah and supplicated for him. He ate from the sack till the time that `Uthmān was killed, after which he gave it away, and it is reported that it filled fifty camel loads in the way of Allāh, Mighty and Magnificent. From a bowl of food gifted him by Umm Sulaym on the night of his consummation with Zaynab, he fed a large group of people. After they had eaten, they could not tell whether the food was more at the beginning or at the end.
On the Day of Hunain he threw a handful of dirt at the disbelievers and Allāh, Most High, vanquished them, filling their eyes with dirt. It is concerning this that Allāh, Mighty and Magnificent, revealed,
|“It was not you who threw when you threw, but it was Allāh Who threw.” [al-Anfāl (8): 17]
He was chased by Surāqah ibn Mālik who wanted to kill him, when he drew close he ﷺ supplicated against him and the feet of his horse sank into the earth, he called out asking for safe conduct and was granted it, then he asked the Prophet to make a supplication for him and Allāh saved him.
He ﷺ has many clear and amazing miracles, we have sufficed with mentioning just these.
|All praise and thanks are due to Allāh.
Peace and blessings be upon our master Muhammad,
his family and Companions.